Fire sprinkler system is required regardless of the purpose of the building. This will ensure any fire (if started) will be brought under control within minimum time. Damages to property can be reduced as much as possible. Spreading of fire is delayed to certain extent till fire fighters arrive or if possible extinguished in time. People get enough time to escape the building during fire incidents before it starts spreading. In some places it is mandatory to have the system installed according to local municipal rules and regulations.
The design is dependent on the building plan, purpose of building and budget of the owner. Fire sprinkler system design charges for old and existing building will be more. Even complexity of the building, depending on the availability of building plan, will add to the design charges, making it expensive. Reliability on design and installation can be guaranteed by a professional fire management company. With years of experience and use of appropriate software they will be able to design a system that best suites the building giving cost efficiency. With the help of software the sprinkler systems can be designed based on hazard level of the building, sensitive areas and density, and sprinkler type to be installed.
A variety of sprinkler system available based on the need and requirement are- control mode sprinkler, suppression sprinkler, fast response sprinkler, water mist sprinkler, decorative sprinkler, extended coverage sprinkler, low- pressure sprinkler, early suspension fast response sprinkler, wet pipe or dry pipe sprinkler. Control mode sprinkler will affect the area around the core fire and wet the surrounding to dissolve the fire. With suppression sprinkler the core area of the fire is sprayed on, lowering the temperature faster. For a quicker response on dislodging water from pipes fast response sprinkler can be used, suitable for light hazard building areas. In places where water might damage the surrounding areas water mist sprinklers are used. This sprinkler releases high pressure mist in the core area, which will get converted to steam coming in contact with fire and blocking oxygen supply for the fire. In residential building the decorative sprinkler can be concealed behind a plate/cap, which is attached to sprinkler using glue. This glue will dissolve due to heat released by fire and expose the head of the sprinkler to dislodge water. For limiting the number of sprinklers used and still covering a larger area extended coverage sprinklers are used. Low pressure sprinklers are used for tall buildings and sky scrapers due to low pressure of water in the top floors of the building. To control fire in high-risk storage facilities with flammable materials early suppression fast response sprinklers are used. Depending on availability of heat, wet pipe(where heat is available) and dry pipe (where heat is not available) are used so that the pipes do not burst due to pressure when water is dislodged.
The technique used to design the fire sprinkler system is complex, which includes a lot of calculation and mapping based on building structure. For such system to be designed immense technical knowledge is required. Experienced and professional companies will be able to design and install customized sprinkler system for reasonable cost with reliability.